
ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES".
No. 5. Vol. 23. 2017
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R. M. Yusupov, Professor, Corr. member RAS, email: yusupov@iias.spb.su, SaintPetersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation RAS, SaintPetersburg, A. A. Musaev, Professor, email: amusaev@technolog.edu.ru, SaintPetersburg State Institute of Technology
By Estimating the Effectiveness of Information Systems.
Methodological Aspects
The task of creation a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of information systems (IS) and technology. The specificity of this problem is the service nature of the information applications, which leads to the indirect estimation of IS effectiveness through the positive terminal effect of metasystem, in which interests the information system has been created or adapted.
The brief summary of the existing approaches and techniques to estimation of information systems and technologies efficiency is provided. Ambiguity of the used efficiency determinations, and, as a result, difficulties of creation of the formalized, numerical technique of its estimation is established. In particular, the general opinion of most of authors on unfitness of general methodology of the investments analysis for estimation of information systems and technologies efficiency is given. The intangible nature of a subject of information systems applications — information is the essential reason of these difficulties. The offered methodology is based on a combination of traditional methods of probabilistic approach and the system analysis. Classification of performance indicators of information systems is given. The numerical efficiency evaluations of an information system considering the probabilistic nature of the data used for creation of these estimates are offered. The options of necessary and sufficient criteria of information systems efficiency expressed through efficiency of metasystems for the benefit of which they function are provided.
Numerical efficiency evaluations for an industrial control system, for the analytical information system oriented to tasks of decision support, and the educational information system intended for support of educational process are given as examples.
In conclusion of article connection between a information system probabilistic efficiency and the risk consisting in failure to carry out of the task set for system is specified. Features of a risk assessment and a technique its calculation on the basis of logicalprobabilistic approach are specified.
Keywords: information, information systems, information technologies, efficiency, quality, methodology, probabilistic approach, system analysis
P. 323–332
M. V. Ulyanov, Leading Researcher, Professor, email: muljanov@mail.ru, V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Yu. G. Smetanin, Chief Researcher, Professor, email: ysmetanin@rambler.ru, Federal Research Center "Informatics and Control" of the Russian Academy of Science, Federal state autonomous educational institution of higher professional education Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)
On a Characteristic Functional for Words over a Finite Alphabet
The objects studied in the article are finite words over some finite alphabet. These words are symbolical codes of the investigated objects and processes that are analyzed further. A formalization of the entropy on words function is proposed that is based on the of the entropy of discrete distributions. Using the results of analysis of sets of words with fixed length over a given alphabet, a notion of entropy function majorant is proposed. The entropy on words function and the majorant form the basis for the forms of a characteristic functional proposed in the article, which give a quantitative estimation of the proximity of the tested finite word to a subword of the same length, randomly selected from a random infinite word over the same alphabet. The proposed forms of the functional may be used for solving different tasks of data analysis, including clustering and pattern recognition tasks.
Keywords: information entropy, words over a finite alphabet, entropy on words function, majorant of the entropy function, characteristic functional
P. 333–341
D. A. Nikiforov, Analyst, email: Denis.Nikiforov@centreit.com, D. V. Korj, Head of Business Analysis, email: Dmitriy.Korj@centreit.com, R. L. Sivakov, Director, email: Ruslan.Sivakov@centreit.com, Centre of Information Technologies, Yekaterinburg
A Survey of Tools for XML Validation Based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL)
The article describes an approach to the semantic validation of XML documents based on the ModelDriven Architecture (MDA). The authors have examined several instruments implementing that approach: ShapeChange, NIEM PIM to Schematron Transformation, eXolutio, Dresden OCL, Eclipse OCL, Object Constraint Language Environment (OCLE). The authors have described two main validation methods: 1) a transformation of the OCL constraints to XPath assertions, and 2) an interpretation of the OCL constraints on the object models of XML documents. The authors have also listed the problems encountered within the implementation of that approach: 1) differences in systems of types and operations between the OCL and the XPath, 2) validation of XML documents by means of the external services and data sources, and 3) the completeness of the OCL specification support.
The authors have listed several directions for the development of tools for validation of XML documents based on the OCL: a formal proof of the correctness of the OCL constraints transformations into XPath assertions and a formal proof of the correctness of the OCL constraints application to the object model of XML document; the development of an universal platformindependent data type system, which generalizes type systems of XSD, SQL, etc., and the usage of host languages for XPath different from the Schematron (such as XSD 1.1, XSLT, Java).
Keywords: XML Semantic Validation, Object Constraint Language (OCL), ModelDriven Architecture (MDA), PlatformIndependent Model (PIM)
P. 342–351
R. M. Alguliyev, Dr. of Tech. Sci., Prof., Director, email: rasim@science.az, G. Ch. Nabibayova, Head of Department, email: gulnarara58@mail.ru
Institute of Information Technology of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan
Methods for Determination of the Degree of Integration of Countries in eGovernment Environment
In the paper, the necessity to study the integration processes between countries in egovernment environment in the context of globalization is shown. To this end, the volume of information flows between countries' national domains on the Internet, the number of international meetings of employees of state organizations and the number of international agreements concluded between countries are offered as the indicators for determination of the degree of integration of countries. It is noted that these three criteria (indicators) we have chosen for our research have different importance, and therefore they have different impact on the integration. Therefore, we use weight coefficients to quantify them.
It is also noted that two of these criteria, namely: the international meetings of employees of state organizations and the international agreements concluded between the countries have subcriteria that correspond to their types. Thus, we considered a twolevel hierarchy of criteria (indicators) to solve this problem.
To calculate the weight coefficients of the indicators, a ranking method and an expert evaluation method are proposed. Using the ranking method, we consider a case where the rank of each of the three 1st level criteria, as well as ranks of 2nd level criteria are determined unanimously by a group of experts in this field. Using the expert evaluation method, we considered a case where each expert from the group gives his/her own rank to each of the three 1st level criteria, as well as the 2nd level criteria.
Keywords: integration of countries, indicators of the integration of countries, country code TopLevel Domain (ccTLD), an international treaty, graph theory, integral indicator, weight coefficients, ranking method, expert evaluation method
P. 351–357
V. I. Levin, D. Sc., Ðrofessor' Penza State Technological University, email: vilevin@mail.ru
Modeling of Systems with Uncertainty by Polyinterval Mathematics
In recent decades there are more and more new technologies in the military and civilian spheres which associated with studying of uncertainty. These technologies are widely used in engineering, economics, social sphere. To support their new mathematical models and methods are needed. In this regard, this article dedicated to the development of new model of uncertainty (polyinterval) and mathematical methods of studying this model is relevant. The purpose of article is in the detailed design of a new adequate mathematical model of uncertainty — polyinterval, which is a sequence of a finite number of intervals of uncertainty, system of algebraic operations on polyintervals and rules to perform these operations. To accomplish this goal we propose to extend to study polyintervals the method from the interval mathematics based on the determination of algebraic operations on intervals in form of settheoretic generalizations of operations on real numbers. The novelty of the work lies in the proposed new mathematical model of uncertainty in form of systems ofpolyintervals, together with mathematical means allowing to perform various operations on polyintervals and thereby enabling them to perform mathematical modeling of uncertain systems. So, the article detailed developed a new mathematical model of uncertainty — polyinterval. The system of algebraic operations on polyintervals is determined and rules for their implementation are output. Algorithm of study of uncertain systems with polyinterval parameters is given.
Keywords: interval value, polyinterval value, uncertainty, algebra of polyinterval values, system modeling
P. 358–362
N. P. Demenkov, Ph. D., Associate Professor, email: dnp@bmstu.ru, E. A. Mikrin, D. Sc., Professor, email: eugeny.mikrin@bmstu.ru, I. A. Mochalov, D. Sc., Professor, email: intelsyst@mail.ru, Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Fuzzy Transformation of Laplace in Tasks of Fuzzy Mathematical Modelling. Part II
The purpose of part II of the present article consists in further synthesis of representations of fuzzy transformation of Laplace, its properties and its application for the solution of fuzzy nonlinear tasks.
The fuzzy differential equation is solved by its linearization by a decomposition method with the subsequent application to it fuzzy transformation of Laplace. The example of an fuzzy pointtopoint regional task is solved by method of fuzzy transformation by optimization of the elementary dynamic system.
The fuzzy nonlinear differential equations for which in an obvious form it is possible to allocate linear and nonlinear parts, for example, the fuzzy equations of Rikkati of Duffings, Bernoullis meet in tasks of optimum and classical control also very often. These equations are solved by use of linearization by a method of decomposition of Adomian with the subsequent application of fuzzy transformation of Laplace. The numerical example according to the solution of the differential equation of Duffings with fuzzy entry conditions is given.
The solution of a pointtopoint regional task for the fuzzy differential equation of the 2nd order is received. One of regional conditions is used for finding of value of an initial derivative in fuzzy transformation of Laplace by means of which the initialfuzzy problem is solved. The numerical example of the solution of an fuzzy regional task of a method of fuzzy transformation of Laplace is given.
The fuzzy integrated equation of Voltaire's equation of the 2nd sort for cases when the kernel of the equation is accurate and fuzzy is solved. The task is generalized on a case of existence in the indistinct integrated equation of an fuzzy differential component in private derivatives. It allows to extend a technique of application of fuzzy transformation for a case of the fuzzy linear equations in private derivatives of the 2nd order of parabolic and hyperbolic types.
Keywords: fuzzy transformation of Laplace, derivative on Hukukhara, Voltaire's equation of the 2nd sort, the equation of Duffings, a decomposition method, an fuzzy boundary task, the fuzzy integrated equation like convolution
P. 362– 369
Iu. V. Litvin, Ph.D, Director of the Center, email: litvinj@simplecs.ru The Limited Liability Company "ScientificResearch Institute of Economics and Management in Gas Industry" (LLC "Nllgazeconomika", JSC "Gazprom"), Moscow, K. S. Nozdrin, Head of the ScientificTechnical Center, email: nozdrinks@yandex.ru, A. A. Polkov, Leading Engineer, email: andr.polkov@yandex.ru Joint Stock Company "Research Institute for Automated Apparatus named after Academician V. S. Semenikhin" (JSC " NIIAA"), Moscow
System of Virtual Prototyping and Modeling Management Information Systems of Real Time
New approach to assessment of probable time response characteristics created management information realtime systems (IMS RT), on the basis of the virtual prototypes, combined imitative and analytical and regression models is considered. There is a large number of examples systems belonging to the considered class. The main problem creation of similar systems consists that it is necessary to make decisions in the conditions of high uncertainty and incompleteness of information. Postponing the analysis for later time when information appears, it is necessary spend a lot of time for a redesign. Within the considered technology three basic approaches are integrated: conceptual simulation, the virtual prototyping and combined models.
Conceptual simulation is the important building tool IMS RT. However only recently special attention, in many respects thanks to the UML and IDEF languages is paid to the this approach. The support system of processes of creation of IMS RT offered in article essentially leans on the UML language.
The second element of the offered technology is use the virtual prototypes (VP). Development and the research VP already at early design stages allows to define detail requirements to the IMS RT separate components and to coordinate external interfaces with the customer, and also to fulfill the made project decisions. Dipping allows estimating at the environment VP how the developed system will behave in interaction with other systems. It is essential to help with their decision can render combined models.
The used combined models can have different character, for example, simulation and analytical models, simulation and regression and hybrid discrete and continuous models.
Use of the considered technology is shown by a simple specific example of the solution one often originating questions during creation of IMS RT.
Keywords: conceptual model, virtual prototype, combined simulationregression models, technology prototyping and modeling, simulation, information control system, realtime system
P. 370–375
Tran Van Nghia, Postgraduate Student, nghiamosmipt@gmail.com Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)
Development of the Parallel BCH and LDPC Encoders Architecture for the Second Generation Digital Video Broadcasting Standards with Adjustable Encoding Parameters on FPGA
In the second generation digital video broadcast standards, such as DVBT2, DVBS2, DVBC2, etc., is applied a powerful channel coding scheme to transmit data on the nonideal communication channels with limited bandwidth due to the serial concatenation of BCH (BoseChaudhuriHocquenghen) and LowDensityParityCheck (LDPC) codes. The highspeed requirements, large data block lengths and multiparametric encoding present complex challenges in the efficient implementation of hardware architecture. This paper proposes a new approach to parallel implementation of BCH and LDPC encoders with adjustable encoding parameters, supporting all the different BCH + LDPC code configurations. The proposed solution is fully backward compatible to legacy decoder on the receiving side.
Keywords: forward error correction code, BCH encode, LDPC encode, Galois field, DVB, FPGA, DVBT2 modulator
P. 376–381
A. P. Kudrjashov, Junior Researcher, email:
kudryashovA@mail.ru, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Far Eastern Branch of RAS, Vladivostok,
I. V. Soloviov, Graduate Student, email: igorek.solovyev@mail.ru, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Far Eastern Branch of RAS, Vladivostok
Reconstruction of the City Environment Based on Terrain Using the Topographic Map and Services Google Maps
In this paper we propose a method for reconstruction of urban space on the basis of topographic maps and geographic coordinates. Our algorithm allocates map information on buildings and creates a 3Dterrain model. Additional data allow to construct relief. Texturing buildings carried an automatic method based on real photos. The method of reconstruction is based on use of wave algorithm of Lee. Modeling of a scene is based on extracting of service information on a topographic map. The whole process is fully automatic using data of a topographic map algorithm automatically chooses texture of the building and puts it on model. We demonstrate the algorithm on real maps of Vladivostok. The topographic map is used as initial data. Result of work of algorithm — the textured 3Dscene consisting of models of buildings, relief and additional objects. Our method allows to recreate the simplified models of scenes. However, these models may be used in applied tasks.
Keywords: threedimensional reconstruction, topographic map, geographic coordinates, texturing, urban setting
P. 382–387
I. S. Pechenko, Research Associate, email: ivan.pechenko@intel.com, O. V. Venger, Senior Researcher, email: oleg.v.venger@intel.com, D. A. Plotkin, Research Associate, email: dmitry.plotkin@intel.com,
ZAO Intel A/O
ACES Tables: a Framework for Creation and Usage of SoC Architectural Specifications in Table Form
Growing complexity of SoC designprocess leads to growing the importance of design verification process. However, traditional design process assumes that verification begins only after RTL coding phase. There are several reasons for it, and the main reason is impossibility of automatic processing and formal verification of most architectural specifications.
SoC architectural specification on the early design phases is an informal textual description of the system, but includes some structured elements such as spreadsheets and diagrams. An essential part of the spec then is presented in tabular form.
Architectural specifications can be used for formal system verification only if: they can be automatically processed, their quality, completeness and unambiguousness are under tight control. Another important requirement is convenience of capturing these architectural specifications.
To implement these requirements we developed ACES (Architectural, Consistent, Efficient Specifications) system that supports the creation and use of structured components of SoC specifications (spreadsheets and diagrams). Here in this work we describe ACES capabilities for working with spreadsheets implemented in ACES Tables subsystem. ACES Tables is an extension for Microsoft Excel that implements objectoriented approach to table creation when each table is created based on its template. Table templates determine table layout, rules for checking data in the table, data relations and data swapping rules. For each architecture aspect ACES needs a module that consists of specific table templates and some automation.
ACES Tables subsystem provides capabilities for automatization of the process of creation and usage of SoC architectural specifications. These capabilities include:
— Basic data import and export capabilities using ACES XML intermediate format.
— Data validation engine.
— Some functions for convenient usage of ACES tables: records addition and deletion mechanism, columns hiding and access control mechanisms and other.
— Capability for tables upgrade after template changes.
One of the most important features of ACES Tables is its extensibility. It supports adding new templates and automation for new architectural artifacts and new modules for translation from and to new data formats. Thus, ACES Tables system has many capabilities for automatic specifications data processing and can allow using architectural specifications in system verification process.
Keywords: System on Chip, design process, verification, architectural specification, table, objectoriented approach, template, data import, data export
P. 388–393
A. B. Barsky, D. Sc., Professor, email: arkbarsk@mail.ru Moscow State University of Railway Engineering (MIIT)
Neural Network Method of Accelerated Adoption of the Operating System, Making Supercomputer EPICArchitecture
The operating system (OS) supercomputer, solving problems in realtime, embodies many of the features that monitor the operating parameters: system configuration and redundancy characteristics of technical means and their reliability, control and diagnostic results, performance multichannel service job flow, etc. According to the settings received, often fuzzy, data representing the point of the factor space and the events defining the situation, quickly make different decisions. Factors or values may be carried out with weights.
Proposed the implementation of decision support systems (DSS) in the OS supercomputer EPICarchitecture that is managed in each step, with the help of singlelayer logical neural networks (LNS), allowing parallelization and pipelining of action in the absence of branching.
When building a program of neurocomputers procedure uses the principle of "engagement" conveyors to implement the basic operations — scalar multiplication of vectors. The two conveyors (for even and odd indices) multiplying the excitation vector to vector receptor neuron weights, upon receipt of the next intermediate results immediately transmit them to the addition of the pipeline through the buffer registers fast. This conveyor is made of pair wise addition on the scheme of a binary tree. The final result of the scalar multiplication of vectors produced in the last buffer register — in the root node of the tree. Such a scheme "fold" of the array does not interrupt the pipeline, as devoid of having to wait for intermediate results of summation.
The possibility of "engagement" of four conveyors multiplication and of the two conveyors addition to increase productivity neurocomputer twice.
Neurocomputer can be included in the application package for universal use in many recognition systems, control and decisionmaking.
Keywords: supercomputer, the EPICarchitecture, logic neural network, matrix connections, neurocomputer, "engagement" conveyors
P. 394–400
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